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Slaven bilić bisherige trainerstationen

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6. Nov. West Ham United reagiert auf die Talfahrt in der Premier League und entlässt Trainer Slaven Bilic. Die Nachfolge scheint bereits geklärt. Sept. Nach knapp einem Jahr ohne Anstellung als Trainer hat Slaven Bilic eine neue Herausforderung angenommen. Der Kroate versucht sein. 6. Nov. Nur zwei Siege aus elf Spielen: West Ham United hat die Zusammenarbeit mit Trainer Slaven Bilic beendet. Die Londoner belegen den. Top Gutscheine Alle Shops. Danach steht Schmidt nach wie vor auf der Kandidatenliste der Eintracht. Die Londoner belegen den drittletzten Platz der Premier Casino games at remington park - ein Nachfolger steht angeblich schon bereit. Eine Veränderung sei "notwendig, damit der Klub sich positiv und seinen Ambitionen entsprechend entwickeln" könne, begründete der Verein die Trennung. Lokomotive Moskau und Besiktas Istanbul. Nur zwei Siege aus elf Spielen: Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel. Baggert die Eintracht an Slaven Bilic? Mehr zum Thema Stream dortmund augsburg Frankfurt. Bilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde. Alle Kommentare öffnen Seite 1.

Slaven bilić bisherige trainerstationen - understand you

West Ham hat soweit ich dies aus der Ferne mitbekommen habe, gerade in der ersten Saisonhälfte Schwierigkeiten gehabt und ist mit einem Endspurt in der BPL geblieben. Nur zwei Siege aus elf Spielen: Eine Veränderung sei "notwendig, damit der Klub sich positiv und seinen Ambitionen entsprechend entwickeln" könne, begründete der Verein die Trennung. Ob Moyes jetzt unbedingt der Richtige ist, das können Insider und Insulaner sicher besser beurteilen als ich, aber ich bin sehr skeptisch. Das glaubt zumindest Sport1 zu wissen. Bilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde. Nach seinem Amtsantritt im Sommer hatte der Jährige die Londoner allerdings als Tabellensiebter in die Europa League geführt, im zweiten Amtsjahr des ehemaligen Defensivspielers wurde West Ham, derzeit Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Nur zwei Siege aus elf Spielen: Bilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde. Diese Nachricht deckt sich nicht mit den Informationen der Frankfurter Blu casino online. Kovac geht dann zum FC Bayern München. Mehr zum Thema Eintracht Frankfurt.

He signed one more year until summer in May He played his last match for Red Bull in a friendly against former club Bayern Munich; he was substituted off after the first 15 minutes.

He was subsequently not part of the national team for two years before making his comeback in a friendly match against France in November At the final tournament, he appeared as a starting player in all three group matches before Croatia was eliminated from the tournament with a third-place finish in their group.

He also played the entire three group matches played by the Croatian team at the final Euro tournament in Portugal and scored the opening goal in the final group match against England.

However, Croatia lost the match 4—2 and was once again eliminated from the tournament as the third-placed nation in its group. This was the third consecutive time this had happened in a major tournament.

His sterling performances against Germany and Turkey ultimately unrewarded in what could prove to be his last major tournament.

Croatia were drawn in Group 5 of the qualifying competition, together with Switzerland , Ukraine , Latvia and Liechtenstein. In the first four games Croatia got the maximum of 12 points with a goal difference of 13—0.

He debuted with a 5—0 away win against Liechtenstein, before he brought two away wins against the group favourites Ukraine and Switzerland. Players returned for pre—season training on 2 July He has two younger siblings, brother Robert and sister Nikolina.

They have a daughter Laura. He generally lives a quiet family life, and considers a family of great value and tries to convey that to his players.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 March Retrieved 16 April Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 10 June Retrieved 21 January Retrieved 9 June Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 12 June Retrieved 14 April Retrieved 29 May Bayern Munich announce Croat will replace Jupp Heynckes".

Retrieved 13 April Retrieved 18 April Ginoux—Ramsl Ginoux, N. Making Connections, Oxbow Books, in press. Guadagnin Guadagnin, R. Hunt Leslie Hunt Leslie, B.

Kaul Kaul, F. Hojotsprings fundet og dets baggrund, Nationalmuseet, Copenhague. Kruta Kruta, V. Lejars Lejars, T. Leman-Delerive Leman-Delerive, G.

Raftery Ratery, B. Dussere Ramsl Ramsl, P. Ramsl Ramsl, P. Rapin—Baray Rapin, A. Roska Roska, M. Uzsoki Uzsoki, A.

Zachar Zachar, L. List of plates Pl. Pasquier; ater Ginoux Small mount no R M. Examples of some morphological diferences between both large mounts.

X-ray examination setting of the small and large pairs of mounts. One can clearly see the additional thickness of the inner linings on their relief patterns examples are indicated by dark arrows , but also on the ixing zone of the reverse cone-shaped iron rod examples are indicated by light arrows J.

Large mount R; 2. Small mount no R; 3. Traces of mineralized fabric; 4. Organic residues on large mount R; 5.

Examples of some morphological diferences; 6. Matting surface treatment by dot work. Der Name des Ortes taucht erstmals im Jahre in den Quellen auf. Biel vom Landesdenkmalamt Stuttgart durch.

Diese starke Holz-Steinkonstruktion hat vermutlich das Aubrechen der Kammerdecke verhindert. Der Wagen war also fahrbereit ins Grab gestellt worden Biel , 50 Abb.

Auf dem Wagenkasten befand sich: Die Untersuchungen ergaben Hinweise auf die Herstellungsart sowohl der Holzkonstruktion als auch der Eisenverkleidung.

Die Mannschat hat den Wagen nach diesem Vorbild mit starrer Vorderachskonstruktion rekonstruiert bzw. Der Wagenkasten von Hochdorf war jedoch so stabil, dass er die beiden Achsen ohne Langfuhr zusammenhalten konnte Biel , — Der Achsabstand ist so kurz, dass fast auf der Stelle gedreht werden kann; b.

Jedoch ist diese Vorderachsenrekonstruktion alleinstehend. Alle anderen hallstattzeitlichen Wagen, Ohneheim Egg , 77—, Farbtaf.

Die Rekonstruktion ist auch unter den Wagenspezialisten nicht unumstritten Pare , —; Koch , —, Abb. Entgegen aller Erwartungen ist der Hochdorfer Wagen trotz starrer Vorderachse lenkbar.

Nach der Herstellung der einzelnen Metall- bzw. Ulme unter Dampf zu einem Rund gebogen. Sie wurden in Bohrungen an Nabenbrust und Felge eingezapt Taf.

Bader im Holz befestigt ist. Auf diesem federnden Gelecht konnte man relativ bequem sitzen oder sogar stehen.

Der obere Rand des Wagenkastens ist mit proilierten Halbkugeln verziert. Literaturverzeichnis Bader Bader, T.

Barth Barth, F. Biel Biel, J. Egg Egg, M. Hayen Hayen, H. Joachim Joachim, H-E. Kimming Kimmig, W. Koch Koch, J. Pare Pare, Chr.

Schleife, Schlitten, Rad und Wagen. Uenze Uenze, H. Liste der Tafeln1 Taf. Rekonstruktion der Grabkammer mit dem Wagen nach Biel ; 3.

Der rekonstruierte Wagen von Hochdorf; 4. Speichenrad des Wagens; 2. Speichenrad des Wagens nachgebaut ; 3. Die Speichen des Rades; 6.

Die Herstellung der Nabe. Verkleidete Speichen und Nabe; 2. Verkleidete Nabenbrust, Nabenhals und Nabenkopf; 3.

Der Reif wurde durch das Feuer gezogen; 6. Aufziehen des Felgenspans; 2. Die Nabenkappe sitzt auf der Achse; 4. Das Rad ist fahrtbereit; 5.

Die vier Wagenkastenecken wurden mit Halbkugeln verziert; 2. Deichsel, Achse mit dem Wagenkasten; 3. Bronzeblech dominierte bei der Verkleidung des Wagens; 3.

Der Wagen ist fast fertig; 4. Der nachgebaute Wagen im Grab. Bader 1 2 3 4 Tafel 2. Bader 1 2 3 4 Tafel 6. In advance of its loss to basalt extraction the site was investigated by German archaeologists in the period — Richthofen , —; Richthofen ; Jahn , 66—78, —; Petersen , In the post-war period —, and Polish archaeologists investigated the remaining part of the site Czerska; ; Although only a small fraction of the excavated material was ever published, the function and dating of the Celtic settlement at Nowa Cerekwia have been addressed in the archaeological literature on numerous occasions.

Czerska , , ig. Until recently it seemed that all what could be achieved when it comes to understanding the site at Nowa Cerekwia had already been achieved by the researchers who had already investigated the site.

But this was until when the present writer came across information about discoveries made within the settlement by treasure hunters armed with metal detectors.

Although there was no reason to challenge the reliability of the informants, given the modest number of objects attributable to Celts known from present-day Poland, their reports sounded quite exciting.

Some of the recovered objects, such as the zoomorphic igurines, had no analogies among inds made so far to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland.

To conirm whether the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia indeed still harbours some secrets, in , assisted by a group of detectorists1 and with the 1 My warmest thanks go to all the ield workers who took part in this project, for their selless assistance and commitment as a result of which it was possible to make the sensational discoveries at Nowa Cerekwia.

Rudnicki participation of an archaeologist, M. Bednarek, a surface survey was made of the site. At present this assemblage of the newly recovered inds associ- ated with the Celtic settlement at Nowa Cerekwia — both the result of archaeological survey and from amateur prospecting — is signiicantly in excess of items.

What is unfortunate, however, is that we may never know their exact number because ever since the end of the archaeological ieldwork in the area of the settlement has been investigated regularly by detectorists and news of their discoveries are very rarely formally recorded.

As an introductory analysis it does not pretend to exhaust all of the individual inds, of which some are unique and some simply spectacular.

To make a multi-faceted analysis of this vast and diverse material would be to undertake a labour-intensive project which, in practice, could delay indeinitely the sharing the results of the new ieldwork at Nowa Cerekwia.

And yet the signiicance of the discoveries in recent years has furnished a basis for an updated interpretation of the nature of the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia and the role it played in the settlement network of Central European Celts.

Locality of Nowa Cerekwia and of Celtic settlement within the present-day territory of Poland. Conservation of Archaeological Heritage, from the resources of Fundusz Promocji Kultury, the Government fund for promoting culture.

A very important aspect of the geophysical setting of Nowa Cerekwia, highly sig- niicant for the character of Celtic settlement in this region, is its location in a broad depression between the Sudetesland and the Carpathians — the Moravian Gate Fig.

Dividing these two great mountain ranges the depression of the Moravian Gate throughout antiquity continued to be used as a major com- munication route linking the south of Europe with the Baltic Sea basin — the Iron Age route described by archaeologists as the Amber Route.

Owing to its very fertile soils this is an area mainly cleared of forest and under intensive agricultural use. One of its characteristic features is small volcanic monad rocks or erosion resistant rocks.

In its immediate vicinity there is — at least nowadays — no source of running water. Up to the present this is the only case of this kind of siting of a Celtic settlement recorded in the territory under Celtic settlement to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland.

When in , a farmer named Lammich was opening up a quarry in the basalt hillside — at a location known locally as Altstett from German Alte Stadt — old town , his workmen came across some spearheads and Celtic objects of green and blue glass Newrzella , Meanwhile, the new discoveries have created new possibili- ties for interpreting these inds as will be noticed below.

As basalt continued to be extracted over the years Pl. However, the irst small archaeological excavation was made in , by the extreme right wing B.

One of his discoveries was a Celtic pottery kiln. Stiebler, the head of the commune of nearby Bieskau, an amateur antiquarian and local activist and the source of many valuable details about the inds made at Nowa Cerekwia before World War II, was digging potatoes in the general area of the prior investigations and discovered a Celtic gold coin, subsequently identiied as a stater, of the Plumlov type cf.

Archaeological excavation projects carried out at the time were mostly of a rescue character. It is not entirely clear what the German researchers had excavated during their ieldwork as to this day neither the full body of this archaeological record nor the ield documentation has been brought together.

Czerska reports the discovery during the inter- war years of nineteen features, namely: However, we still do not know their precise location or their precise lay-out.

And this record may be far from complete. According to the account given by M. Stiebler — witness to further discoveries made at Nowa Cerekwia — before WWII a total of 30 pit-houses with post-holes indicated by their black illing had been excavated — not counting those destroyed by the quarry Newrzella , Rudnicki by Raschke, were very hard to detect and certainly unrecognizable to the layman Stiebler , 9; Newrzella Even less is known about the portable inds discovered during this period, references to which have survived in just a few publications.

Ater the end of WWII ield-work on the settlement, now recorded as site no. In —, and it was run by B. If we take into account the registered inds from before WWII, 67 glass objects were recorded, of which 31 were bracelet fragments, and the remainder, mostly beads Karwowski , 60—61, 65—66 , as well as the four coins mentioned earlier — two gold and two silver.

All the later inds, made both by detectorists before and later by archaeologists, come from the upper levels of the modern topsoil.

It may be safe to state that only a small fraction of objects discovered recently escaped detection during exploration of structures during the seasons when Czerska was directing the excavations.

A vast majority would be objects which had lain within the upper level of the topsoil which was removed by machinery without any further examination during the exca- vation — something that unfortunately to this day is oten the practice during archaeological research in Poland.

And yet this is the layer that contains objects either accidentally dropped or discarded in the past on what was then the ground level. Given the extreme saturation of the area with modern iron objects, complete with shrapnel from World War II5 it was necessary to use some form of discrimination.

Obviously, objects made from non-ferrous metals, especially silver and gold, are the primary object of detectorists.

At the same time the potential value of objects made of non-ferrous metals discovered on the site in view of their chronological homogeneity, is hard to exaggerate.

Until these included two Bronze Age dress pins and the bow of an Almgren 84 ibula from the close of the early Roman period.

A positive aspect of this situation is that it helps in identify- ing the culture attribution of uncharacteristic objects. Dress accessories Other than coins one of the largest categories of objects amongst the new inds from the area of the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia, are fragments of dress accessories.

At this point we have to bear in mind that a marked disproportion in their number are the result of the method of identiication applied of necessity which, in practice prevented the recovery of smaller iron objects.

Meanwhile, in the material from ieldwork at Czerska typologically the earliest ibulae were made of iron. Spherical knobs with a plastic ornament are a typical feature of ibulae from phase LT B2, characteristic mainly for the Carpathian Basin area.

Following the classiication which J. Bujna has developed using the indings from analysis of grave assemblages without weapons known from Slovakia, bronze ibulae with a large spheri- cal knob, usually lattened and with a plastic ornament, are assigned to type BF-C3-A Bujna , 51, ig.

At Kietrz, grave no. Partly made of iron, this specimen has a heavy bronze bow and the knob covered with a plastic ornament Gedl , 19, pl.

Presumably we can assign to the younger stage of phase LT B the plain spherical knob set on an iron foot Pl. Also attributable to the older group of ibulae from Nowa Cerekwia is a small specimen which survives only as a fragment of a markedly arched bow Pl.

A closer determination of this ind from the surviving fragments may be impracticable. Attention is drawn in this inventory to a handful of smaller specimens Pl.

However, in our case their poor state of preservation prevents us from making any conclusion of this sort.

With typologically related specimens e. One of the better represented are links which have the form of a globular knob, oten lattened to a varying degree, set between two rectangular or trapezoidal plates.

On the outer edges of the plates are two or three holes for attaching the linking chain. Belts made of symmetrical links of this design are known only from settlement sites in Central Europe.

Werner who brought together the small number of early inds of this type from the Middle Danube region. At the same time he observed that their scarcity in grave inventories in lat cemeteries and the lack of inds from chronological contexts makes it possible to date these elements of clothing only very broadly within phases LT C2—D1.

Nevertheless some doubt in this respect is raised by the shortage of inds of these artefacts which have been recovered from oppida contexts.

We have to note also that the belt links recovered at Nowa Cerekwia — at least the better preserved ones — difer quite signiicantly from variants known so far and have no analogies in the material record currently available.

We may surmise that this was also the design of a heavy link Pl. It is also notable that these two unusual links have traces of having been exposed to high temperature.

A few other inds may possibly be elements of this type of belt chain Pl. But, equally, they could represent a slightly diferent type: Other elements of this inventory date the whole assemblage to phase LT C1 cf.

An intact belt, but with roughly trapezoidal plates for link attachment was discovered at Oberrohrbach Lower Austria. Presumably it belonged to the inventory of a female cremation burial which is dated by ibulae group EF-K of Bujna to the younger horizon of phase LT C1 cf.

Lauermann ; Bujna , Bujna , —, ig. Elements of bronze belts of interest are represented in the inds inventory from Nowa Cerekwia by fragments of links.

One of these Pl. Another ind that can be classiied in this typological group is a fragment of a link with plates decorated with enamel and one hole still in place Pl.

Although its state of preservation prevents its closer attribution, this ind may represent a belt chain variant not recorded in the past.

Deinitely unique is an openwork link which, instead of two plates on two sides of the ring, has outlines of stylized birds, their beaks touching Pl.

In the group of inds of belt chain fragments from Nowa Cerekwia there are links from a belt Pl. Voigt , , His work was cited by Reitinger , —, ig.

Links from this type of belt chain are quite numerous to the north of the Carpathians. But questions of terminology aside we may conclude that the period of popularity of belts of interest to us here coincides with phase LT C1.

Among the inds of bronze belt chains recovered from Nowa Cerekwia there is a fragment of a cross-shaped link decorated with enamel Pl.

Its preservation is too poor to determine conclusively the typological position of the original belt. At the same time possible chronological diferences between the types are not too great as both date to LT C1 Bujna , —, —, —, groups Gk-J and Gk-K.

Similar doubts apply to a bronze element decorated with enamel with a stylized animal-head ter- minal Pl. Worse still, it is not fully clear where exactly in the belt this element used to it.

Given its hook-like terminal in the form of a stylized animal-head it could be the fastener. If we accept this interpretation we have to ques- tion the method of attachment of this element to the rest of the belt.

Chain belt terminals, depending on whether they were main or side fasteners, were attached to the rest of the belt with a horizontal sleeve on the opposite side to the hook, or with vertical sleeves in case of the side terminals , in which were ixed ornamental links or bronze rings.

If we set aside the diference of design this artefact is stylistically a very close parallel to the ind from Nowa Cerekwia.

A similar feature is seen on an ornamental attach- ment from a belt of Austrian-Bohemian type part of the inventory of inhumation grave no.

In its design and ornamentation this piece closely resembles the ind from Nowa Cerekwia. Instead, to the V-shaped terminal of its frame-like construction are attached two decorative pendants.

It is possible that the ind from the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia is an ornamental belt attachment rather than a belt terminal.

In case of inds from the two latter sites this is supported also by the analogical form of the stylised animal heads serving the role of hooks see earlier discussion.

In one of them the outer parts of the sleeves are lightly proiled and decorated with a motif of a diagonal cross Pl. In the other specimens the outer surface is plain.

Despite the lack of analogies, the size and traces of wear indicate that these are most likely to have been belt chain links.

Similar links are known from locations other than Nowa Cerekwia. In the collection of new inds from Nowa Cerekwia there are quite a large number of bronze rings of various diameters and cross-sections Pl.

In the main, the only exceptions are belts in which the links are connected with a chain cf. Continued friction could have caused the ring to fracture Pl.

Equally numerous as the rings in this group of inds are bronze pendants Pl. Also notable is the presence of similar single pendants Pl.

A sepa- rate group have oblong and lattened pendants Pl. Spindle-shaped pendants formed part of a complete belt of Austrian-Bohemian type, an element of the inventory of grave no.

Polenz proposes to date this assemblage to the early stage of LT C1 Polenz , although ibulae found in the Giengen cemetery Polenz , 66, Abb. Bujna , 58, ig.

A pendant for the specimen decorated with red enamel Pl. Also noteworthy is a pen- dant Pl. Benadik , 98; Zachar , , ig. Poor conservation hinders their typological classiication.

Found among them are specimens with a hook terminal in the form of a stylised animal head with bulging eyes Pl.

Hooks of similar form are a feature oten observed on fasteners or buckles of Celtic chain-belts. In this group of inds there are also simple forms of buckles or fasteners with a leaf-shaped plate and a hook-like terminal Pl.

Even in their frag- mented condition it can be ascertained that in one case lush with the plate there was a ring. Simple belt fasteners or buckles of this form are much rarer than specimens with stylised animal representations.

Louny in north-western Bohemia Filip , pl. In many cases some of the characteristic elements buckles or fasten- ers, links, pendants were all ixed to one and the same belt which could be one of a number of types.

It is worth noting that these dress accessories were oten quite elaborate, presumably assembled from elements selected from what individual cratsmen had in stock.

A conclusive identiication of separate belt types is possible only in some cases. In this situation the classiication and dating of these inds from settlement contexts, surviving fragmented as a rule has to be matched against a serious degree of error.

Personal ornaments he dominant ind in the group of personal ornaments made of bronze recovered from the settle- ment at Nowa Cerekwia are fragments of bracelets and anklets Pl.

Possibly the oldest among them is an uninished segment of a bracelet in the form of a plain, round-sectioned ingot with thick- ened and proiled terminals Pl.

Even so, in south Bavaria similar forms are one of the markers for Horizont 4 of lat cemeteries Gebhard , ig. Ingot bracelets, possibly anklets, decorated with closely spaced incisions are one of the markers of the same horizon also in Moravia and in Bohemia Gebhard , ig.

On the other hand, specimens decorated around their circumference with engraved ornament Pl. Rudnicki to be the neck ring from grave no.

Presumably, the personal ornament from Nowa Cerekwia also had four ornamented thickened bulges spaced on its perimeter at even intervals.

Even if we have only a small fragment of this specimen we may conclude that it resembled bracelets found in graves no. Originally it consisted of three segments attached with hinges.

Given its characteristic cross-section its prototypes may be found among glass bracelets with three ribs. Consequently we cannot say which of these types provided the direct inspiration for the ornament and this afects the question of its dating.

Of the class of ornaments of the greatest interest to us here the most widespread in the western region of Central Europe is type 6a.

Amongst the inds inventory under analysis here is a fragment of a Hohlbuckelringe or anklet com- posed of hollow hemispheres Pl. As they tended to evolve relatively steadily across time they are a fairly reliable chronologically diagnostic form.

According to Gebhard , ig. It is hard to conclude as to what fragment of what personal ornament or what dress accessory is the next item in the inventory of inds from Nowa Cerekwia — a cluster of three knobs decorated with punch-marks Pl.

However we cannot discount that in our case this may be a decorative element of a bracelet ornamented with pseudo-iligree.

A ind without analogies whatsoever is a fragment of a hoop of bronze sheet with raised edges between which there are hemispherical knobs Pl.

In view of its small reconstructed diameter this object may be interpreted as a fragment of a inger-ring. A possible personal ornament could be the bronze igurine of a stylised human, arms crossed over the breast Pl.

It survives nearly complete missing only a fractured eyelet. One of the eye sockets retains a residue of black enamel which may have also decorated the round impressions above the arms.

Although this artefact lacks exact analogies similar, small anthropomorphic igurines are recorded pretty much everywhere on the Celtic territory cf.

One of them Pl. It may have been worn as a pendant around the neck or attached as a pendant to the terminal of an elite belt-chain. Related by its anthropomorphic form to the ind just described is a igurine in the form of a human foot Pl.

Highly stylised, it cannot be easily identiied to be the representation of a naked foot or of a shod one — although the irst interpretation seems more plausible.

Perhaps this is an uninished object. But if we take a closer look at the material from Nowa Cerekwia in a broader cultural context, from the perspective of the situation in the territory to the north of the Carpathians and Sudetesland, this state of afairs is validated, explaining many cultural pro- cesses which unfolded in this northern territory.

However, these issues are in need of a separate, more extensive discussion. Hinges with a tripartite rosette appear only rarely in the territory of the Jastorf culture.

A tripartite rosette, although a little diferent in shape, is seen gracing the top of a hinge discovered at Geesthacht, also in Holstein, but in its southern outlying area Kersten On this basis both inds may be dated broadly to LT C.

Most of them are types recorded earlier at this site cf. Karwowski , 60—61, 65— In grave inventories they are discovered in associa- tion with the oldest forms of bracelets made of blue-green glass Karwowski , 33, 69, ig.

Rudnicki higher ribbing, dated to LT C1b. Further specimens of cobalt glass representing the Group 8b variant 1 with a broad central rib and relatively long incisions Pl.

A form of artefact not recorded earlier, not only in the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia but not in any other site to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland, are cylindrical objects of blue coiled glass thread Pl.

Finished objects of this type were recovered during the archaeological investigation of the site at Nowa Cerekwia by Czerska Pl.

In this context what is of signiicance is that they document glassmaking in a settlement found to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland which we can date using the rest of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia.

Most of them are representations of birds. Representations of animals other than birds are much less common. Among them is a igurine of a hare with an iron collar around its neck Pl.

In this latter case species identiication is made diicult by the degree of stylisation of the representation. Nevertheless, this is more likely to be a representation of a hedgehog as supported by the proportions of the head relative to the rest of the body and its short snout.

A common feature of the igurines is their lat or rather, recessed base or the presence of feet and a lack of means for attach- ment, holes or traces of soldering.

Most likely they served their function in the form in which they have now been recovered. No less than 53 of them are representations of birds, mostly water fowl 28 specimens.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 45 A larger series of analogous inds 22 specimens , again most of them birds, comes from a number of unlisted sites to the north and south of the Danube Jandrasits It is quite likely that one of them is the settlement at Roseldorf Bez.

Hollabrunn , the other — a similar site at Etzersdorf in Lower Austria. Jandrasits has argued — to my mind, quite incorrectly — that these igurines are coin weights.

Individual zoomorphic igurines have also been discovered in other sites in Lower Austria, for example at Michelstetten Lauermann , , ig. An exception is the site at Polkovice okr.

Given their high degree of similarity we may surmise that the igurines played the role of a standardized form of votive object.

Perhaps they were ofered to a deity whose principal attribute was birds. If this was so, then could it be that the sanctuary dedicated to a bird deity had a particular structure which so far has eluded detection.

It is noteworthy that the investigation of sanctuary structures at Roseldorf unearthed a rich assemblage of votive objects which however did not include igurines similar to those we have discussed here cf.

Most of them presumably may be interpreted as weights, which in theory at least would relate them to the monetary system of the Boii cf.

Paulsen ; Castelin To begin with very few objects which have suspension loops Pl. However, perhaps this is only a form of ornament and not any special mark indicat- ing a speciic weight.

On one of its faces is a central ring with a dot in the centre and four additional dots, one in every corner.

Despite obvious stylistic similarities, this time it is also too hard to claim as having any connection with a Boii weighing system from the pre- oppida times.

A separate, fairly uniform group comprises a few dozen bronze objects, most of them in the form of hemispheres or cones or, more rarely, discs Pl.

A few might be claimed as part of a set owing to their weight distribution. Intermediate specimens have a weight close to that of the conical object with a diameter of Rudnicki lighter category of the discussed inds is represented by a specimen in the form of a disc, with a diameter of 7.

Of similar weight 0. One of the lightest specimens has the form of a section of a sphere with a diameter of 5. On the other hand a whole series has been recorded at some unnamed sites on the Danube Jandrasits , 79—80, catalogue no.

Not only is their form highly similar to that of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia, as for instance a specimen with a proiled base Jandrasits , 80, ig.

Jandrasits interpreted these inds as coin weights, matching them somewhat dubiously to the chronologically and geographically mixed denominations of Boii coinage.

What remains a problem is how to explain the weight of other objects in the discussed group. It seems very likely that some of them — especially those in the form of a disc — possibly uninished or mis-struck — lans of silver or gold plated coins subaerati.

We cannot rule out that the rest of the artefacts which have a weight that does not correspond to that of the Boii coins of minting Period A — are also weights.

Perhaps the system of weights used by the Celts was much more complex than might have seem at irst to be the case, and the estimated weights may correspond to units that we still do not understand.

Before closing this section we need to mention inds which supply evidence of local bronze work- ing — casting Pl. Numismatic inds From the many seasons of archaeological excavations on the site of Nowa Cerekwia made before we had an unimpressive series of just three coins.

All the later inds were from sec- ondary deposits. Its ill also contained a fragment of a sapropelite bracelet and sherds,9 a few fragments of daub and some animal bones.

Unfortunately, nothing more is known about these inds owing to the inadequate nature of their publication.

At each end of the axis of this feature was a posthole. A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 47 three iron objects; a needle, a hook, and an ingot, as well as sherds,10 33 fragments of daub and 16 animal bones.

Coins are the largest group in the inventory of inds from the ieldwork carried out in — and number specimens. If we include four coins discovered before and approximately a further 30 from detectorist inds we arrive at a total of around coins,12 of which at least 62 are gold — both complete and clipped.

According to unoicial igures in the period — treasure hunters may have recovered as many as coins. In general, the group may be divided into three groups all from the same chronological period: At Nowa Cerekwia gold specimens are represented entirely by coins of the main series.

Notable also is a very small rep- resentation of subaerate coins. In the recorded part of the coin ind series from Nowa Cerekwia there are only three such coins: A unique specimen is a clipped fragment of a stater with a clear representation of Athena holding a shield Pl.

On the obverse of all coins of this type discovered at Nowa Cerekwia there is a distinct head of Pallas Athena in wearing a Corinthian helmet and with the head turned to the right, and on the reverse — without a shadow of doubt — Athena Alkidemos advancing let and holding her shield upraised to the let.

In case of other specimens of Plumlov type the situation presumably is the same, but owing to the deterioration of the sharpness on the die this cannot be ascertained conclusively.

Notable at the same time is the low frequency not only from Nowa Cerekwia in the material record, of stylistically good gold denomina- tions of Athena Alkidemos type, such as the unique stater Pl.

Rudnicki this practice is that the weight standard was being reduced because throughout this period the metal standard apparently did not change.

A vast majority of the numismatic inds from Nowa Cerekwia are minor silver coins, conventionally described as obols.

A considerable number of them are poorly preserved. Given the good condition of two specimens discovered in — we may assume that the surface of these more recent coin inds was damaged by chemical action including lime used as crop fertiliser.

It is hard to assess the impact of corrosion on the reduction of the weight of individual coins but we need to take this factor into account when making statistical analyses.

Almost without exception the obols are the main types known for the territory covered by the coinage system of the Boii. As a rule they are fairly poorly preserved, their weight being in the range of approximately 0.

However, as will be noted these terms no longer appear to be adequate. Most of them survive in poor condition and in a few cases it is uncertain whether above the horse there was originally a star or some other symbol.

Interestingly enough, these smallest Boii coin fractions were further subdivided into smaller parts Pl.

Also, among obols from Roseldorf there is an apparent quantitative domination of type Roseldorf II. Perhaps, these diferences are the result of diferences in the chronology?

One of them is a clipped fragment of an Eastern Celtic tetradrachm Preda , 29—47, pl. With a weight of 0.

For the time being close analogies are known only from Lower Austria which area also has a record of other variants of obols with a very similar reverse Jandrasits , , nos.

Coins are not the only numismatic object made of gold and silver in the inds from Nowa Cerekwia. One of these objects resembles in its shape a hemispherical, unin- ished coin lan Pl.

Apart from these inds, another conirmation of the local production of gold coins at Nowa Cerekwia is the frag- ment of a gold rod with constrictions at regular intervals Pl.

With a length of Two of them weigh around 4 g and may be interpreted as melted down drachms. Even more notable however are two other silver lumps of regular shape and very similar in weight, 1.

Given the circum- stances presented here of naming the entire group of these coins as Roseldorf I and II Dembski , 6, 8, no.

Group 3 in the numismatic inventory from Nowa Cerekwia closes with imported coins, non-Celtic — at least nine Greek bronzes.

Rudnicki of distant travels or votive oferings, eventually as a handy stock of valuable metal. Celtic mercenaries could get them probably as sitonion also siteresion or sitarchia which is a name referred to rations in kind or the equivalent amount in money — i.

In the history of coinages of Athens is reported by literary sources pseudo-Aristotle, Economics, a; Polyaenos, Stratagems, 3. When assessing its signiicance and character we need to be aware that we have at our disposal only a fragment of the original body of data relating to this centre.

A diametrically diferent view though also incorrect, was presented by Pescheck In his reconstruction the basalt outcrop used to be the site of an oppidum — or a Celtic proto-urban settlement — which extended sup- posedly over an area of about ha.

Putting aside the verac- ity of the information about the existence of traces of earthworks near to the settlement it must be said that the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia, if only because of its chronology, cannot have been an oppidum.

Presumably it was an open settlement, at least 6 ha in area. We have to keep in mind that most of inds are items of non-ferrous metals.

It cannot be regarded as relecting the reality of the situation because men certainly inhabited the settlement as well.

Perhaps they are the earliest coins issued at that site but equally well they could have been brought in from outside during its early phase.

One commodity — amber — was brought in from the north Pl. A major role was played by export to the territory inhabited by closely related Celtic groups to the east the western part of Lesser Poland and to the north-west Lower Silesia.

Celtic gold coins also entered the territory what was then under Germanic settlement, now central Poland Pl. It is here that warriors from the north came, ready to serve in the eastern Mediterranean.

Some of the mercenaries would have been Germanic, for there is no other way to explain the presence of Greek coins Mielczarek , map 1 in Germanic Jastorf and Przeworsk Cultures contexts in central Poland — in Kuyavia and western Mazovia Pl.

Bronze Greek coins were deinitely not an object of long-distance exchange. Germanic mercenaries — as well as Celtic — could get them probably as sitonion.

We can link this process, one that is recorded in various forms, in other areas of Central Europe, to a concrete historical occurrence — the migration of the Cimbri and the Teutones, whose beginning is usually dated to around BC though one should note that this date is only an approximation as the irst point in this migration was the Battle of Noreia, where in BC for the irst time the Germans defeated the forces of Rome Appianos, Celtica Classical authors record that before pushing into Noricum the Cimbri and Teutones had entered the territory of the Boii but were forced out from this area to the lands of the Scordisci and only from there did they march westward Poseidonios in Strabo VII 2, Very likely their route from Jutland ran through the territory of the Boii in Upper Silesia and then on by way of the Moravian Gate and down the valley of the Morava, to the lands on the Danube.

It is quite likely that the migra- tion of the Cimbri and the Teutones also triggered profound settlement change as has been observed in Moravia.

During various stages of their movement east the Cimbri would have been accompanied by sub-groups of various Celtic tribes. Amongst them were also the Boii Neuman et al.

In any case, the investigations made at Nowa Cerekwia have identiied no evidence of destruction to indicate that the end of the settlement was accompanied by major evidence of destruction.

On the contrary, the presence of coil-built pottery with Jastorf and Przeworsk features c. Grygiel , but not in the materials from Schleswig-Holstein or Jutland.

Presumably the Cimbri chose to travel through Upper Silesia because it was occupied by friendly tribes of Germanic extraction and their Celtic allies.

In any case it is likely that they set of south together with them. For example, the archaeological record from Roseldorf includes coins from the oppida period, i.

Also, it seems that the centre at Nowa Cerekwia was the probably earliest of the three to be established. Nowa Cerekwia, positioned at the outlet of the Moravian Gate, had a strategic signiicance for the control over communication routes connecting Moravia with the lands lanking the Odra and the Vistula rivers and, in a larger perspective command- ing the southern regions of Europe with the Baltic Sea basin.

In view of the similarity of the archaeological record, particularly, with regard to the numismatic inds from the three centres, we can hazard a guess that they were part of the same socio- political system.

Possibly this structure may be identiied as being related to the Boii and perceived as a federation of tribes. Centres of this type — resi- dences of the Celtic elite — were the foci of political, social and religious life, as well as of production and commerce.

Most likely, they also served as mustering points from which warriors ready to hire out their services set of on journeys to the Mediterranean.

It is strik- ing that the majority of hoard inds18 of gold Boii coins of approximately similar chronology19 have been discovered spread the length of this route Pl.

Bednarek Bednarek, M. Benadik Benadik, B. Bieger Bieger, A. Bokiniec Bokiniec, E. Bujna Bujna, J. Castelin Castelin, K.

Czerska Czerska, B. Dembski Dembski, G. Echt Echt, R. Filip Filip, J. Gebhard Gebhard, R. Gedl Gedl, M. Giganon Giganon, D.

Grygiel Grygiel, M. Haffner Hafner, A. Haevernick Haevernick, h. Hingst Hingst, H. Hodson Hodson, F.

Holzer Holzer, V. Jahn Jahn, M. Jandrasits Jandrasits, H. Karwowski Karwowski, M. Kersten Kersten, K.

Zu den Ausgrabungen in den Jahren bis , Germania, 40, — Lauermann Lauermann, E. Schritenreihe der Forschung im Verbund, Band , Wien, — Liampi Liampi, K.

Lippert Lippert, A. Marciniak Marciniak, J. Meduna Meduna, J. Mielczarek Mielczarek, M. Rudnicki Neuman et al.

Newrzella Newrzella, O. Paulsen Paulsen, R. Pescheck Pescheck, Ch. Petersen Petersen, E. Pieta Pieta, K.

Polenz Polenz, H. Polenska Poleska, P. Preda Preda, C. Reitinger Reitinger, J. Richthofen Richthofen, von B. Le Rider Le Rider, G.

Rudnicki Rudnicki, M. Rutter Rutter, N. Segesta — Sardinia, Copenhagen. Stiebler Stiebler, M. Stoyas Stoyas, Y. Voigt Voigt, h. Warneke Warneke, T.

Ziegaus Ziegaus, B. List of igures Fig. View of the trench from the north; 2. Georg Raschke, ; 2. Museum of Opole Silesia, inv. Aerial photo of the Site 4 photos: View from north-east; in the distance are visible the Jeseniky mountain range in eastern Sudetesland; 2.

Selected bronze inds from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Selected glass artefacts from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered during by B.

Czerska in photo: Silver obol, Roseldorf II type; 3— Rudnicki gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Selected gold plated subaerate coins, Athena Alkidemos type; A clipped fragment of a gold stater, Athena Alkidemos type; 19— Fragment of an imitation silver tetradrachm, Philip II irst series type; Clipped fragments of gold bars; 5—6.

Bronze coin of Philip II of Macedon; 9. Bronze coin of Kroton in Bruttium; Bronze coin of Hiero II ruler of Syracuse; Bronze coin of Pentonkion, Mamertines of Messana; Raw amber discovered in ; Finds of early Boii coins minting Period A acc.

Greek coin inds in the Central European Barbaricum star: Nowa Cerekwia, ater Mielczarek ; 2. Hoards with only gold Boii coins from minting Period A 1.

Rudnicki 1 2 3 4 Plate 2. A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 63 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 10 5 7 12 13 14 20 21 22 15 16 17 18 19 27 24 25 26 23 28 30 33 34 29 32 31 Plate 5.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 65 5 3 4 1 6 2 10 11 12 17 9 16 8 13 14 15 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Plate 7.

Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered by B.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 67 1 9 5 7 2 3 4 10 8 6 11 14 15 12 13 16 18 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 29 28 0 1 cm Plate 9.

Selected gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Rudnicki 1 2 Plate Eastern Austria, cratsmen, graves, pottery kilns, pottery ornamentation When approaching questions of prehistoric cratsmanship it is essential to identify information based on sources and to examine critically their past interpretation.

In this respect the role of the grave goods may be con- sidered as: At the same time, these areas ofer a link to the Carpathian Basin see also Ramsl ; a.

In this region several burials have been found with an inventory indicating that the individual in the grave was associated with cratsmanship.

In the Traisen Valley, in the small pit of Pottenbrunn grave no. Resin can be used as an adhesive for diferent materi- als, but also as a cushion for engraving work or generally as a working-surface.

Next to this grave, grave no. Ramsl the form of the bufer-terminals of torcs found particularly in north-eastern France — an expression of the high skills of Celtic ine metalwork makers Megaw et al.

Map of archaeological sites in Eastern Austria and the surrounding area mentioned in the text. But the grave good require us to reconsider his profession.

All these artefacts could have been used in pharmaceutical or medicinal practice, but also they could be used for working leather knives , textiles the shears , bone or antler saw or metal the whetstone.

A pair of shears was found separately from the large tools Pl. One is an antler tine with a groove at one end. Another is shaped like a quiver and is also made of antler.

Another reading is that it is a tool for embossing metal. In cremation grave no. As in similar burials, a small group of objects was placed between the right hip and the right hand Pl.

In this grave two fragments of iron bracelets, one small bronze ring and several small bronze fragments with grooves were placed together.

So here, with some caution it can be postulated that this inventory demonstrates the access of the individual or of the familia to a range of resources.

Besides the interpretation of grave inventories, settle- ment features also can indicate the presence of cratsmen and cratsmanship.

Next to the production centres, the distribution areas of pottery decoration are an indication of pos- sible workshops.

It is the case of pots from Mannersdorf graves no. Analogous signs — only stamped into the clay, not engraved Pl. Regarding the genuine ornamentation techniques of the region it can be noticed, that the Traisen Valley and neighbouring areas are rich in artefacts which are decorated with ornaments constructed with a compass Ramsl , Abb.

Around the omphalos on the inside of the bowl two concentric circles can be seen. Analogies can be mentioned from the settlement of Inzersdorf-Walpersdorf Ramsl , Abb.

In both cases the compass point is still visible Pl. An example of a combination of circle ornamentation and stamps can be seen on the pot from Pottenbrunn grave no.

Here a sophisticated circle construction Pl. As a close analogy one may cite the Linsenlasche from Gars am Kamp Pl. It is probable that a special type of compass having a simple shape — a Stangenzirkel — was used, which consists of a small piece of wooden board and two metal points.

In this case it is highly improb- able that such an artefact could have survived. As mentioned earlier, a similar pattern can be also found on bone and antler artefacts.

An example from the region is the turned handle found in Inzersdorf-Walpersdorf Ramsl , Abb. Identic ornament can be seen on the bronze belt-hook from Ossarn Engelhardt , Abb.

Together with simple circles, yin-yang motives, triskels, S-shaped volutes and circular arcs drawn inside a circle the ornamentation made with the help of a compass can be also found on several decorative scabbards Pl.

In , in Sommerein am Leithagebirge, a pair of shoe lasts Pl. Due to their shape, it is clear that these were used for producing so-called Schnabelschuhe or pointed shoes.

Based on the pottery found nearby, they can be dated as far back as the Early Iron Age. Plenty of depictions as well as representations of the Schnabelschuhe are known, like the shoe-shaped ibula from Leopoldau in Vienna Neugebauer , Abb.

It can be seen on the scabbard found in grave no. Other evidence for shoes in the area are the bronze buttons like the ones from Oberndorf Ramsl forthcoming , Gemeinlebarn Neugebauer , or Herzogenburg— Kalkofen Neugebauer b, Taf.

Related cratsmanship can also be seen in nearby located settlement centres. In this case, based on the similarity of some production details, the Traisen Valley and the area of Bratislava show close connections.

In this respect the belt-hooks from Stupava and Ossarn should be mentioned Pl. Both pieces show special moulded ornaments of the metal sheet.

Also the butts of the spearheads from Stupava and Inzersdorf Neugebauer , Taf. Starting with the well-known piece found in grave no.

Another anthropomorphic ibula from this site Pieta , F. Engelhardt Engelhardt, K. Jerem Jerem, E.

Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Die Londoner belegen den drittletzten Platz der Premier League - ein Nachfolger steht angeblich schon bereit. West Ham hat soweit ich dies aus der Ferne mitbekommen habe, gerade in der ersten Saisonhälfte Schwierigkeiten gehabt und ist mit einem Endspurt in der BPL geblieben. West Ham trennt sich von Trainer Slaven Bilic. Diese Nachricht deckt sich nicht mit den Informationen der Frankfurter Rundschau. Mehr zum Thema Eintracht Frankfurt. Das könnte Sie auch interessieren. Nach seinem Amtsantritt im Sommer hatte der Jährige die Londoner allerdings als Tabellensiebter in die Europa League geführt, im zweiten Amtsjahr des ehemaligen Defensivspielers wurde West Ham, derzeit Nachfolger des 49 Jahre alten Kroaten, der noch einen Vertrag bis zum Saisonende hatte, soll nach Medieninformationen David Moyes werden. Kovac geht dann zum FC Bayern München. Bilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde. Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel. Danach steht Schmidt nach wie vor auf der Kandidatenliste der Eintracht. Ok Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies.

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Die Homepage wurde aktualisiert. Diskutieren Sie über diesen Artikel. Alle Kommentare öffnen Seite 1. Top Gutscheine Alle Shops. Der frühere Karlsruher Bundesligaprofi Bilic hatte West Ham im Juli übernommen und seine erste Spielzeit mit einem starken siebten Platz abgeschlossen. Lokomotive Moskau und Besiktas Istanbul. Um Ihnen ein besseres Nutzererlebnis zu bieten, verwenden wir Cookies. Bilic, wie Kovac kroatischer Herkunft, war bis zum vergangenen Herbst Trainer beim englischen Erstligisten West Ham United, ehe er nach lediglich zwei Siegen aus den ersten elf Saisonspielen entlassen wurde.

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Nach seinem Amtsantritt im Sommer hatte der Jährige die Londoner allerdings als Tabellensiebter in die Europa League geführt, im zweiten Amtsjahr des ehemaligen Defensivspielers wurde West Ham, derzeit Das könnte Sie auch interessieren. Eine Veränderung sei "notwendig, damit der Klub sich positiv und seinen Ambitionen entsprechend entwickeln" könne, begründete der Verein die Trennung. Mehr zum Thema Eintracht Frankfurt. Alle Kommentare öffnen Seite 1. Das glaubt zumindest Sport1 zu wissen. Ob Moyes jetzt unbedingt der Richtige ist, das können Insider und Insulaner sicher besser beurteilen als ich, aber ich bin sehr skeptisch.

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One of these Pl. Another ind that can be classiied in this typological group is a fragment of a link with plates decorated with enamel and one hole still in place Pl.

Although its state of preservation prevents its closer attribution, this ind may represent a belt chain variant not recorded in the past.

Deinitely unique is an openwork link which, instead of two plates on two sides of the ring, has outlines of stylized birds, their beaks touching Pl.

In the group of inds of belt chain fragments from Nowa Cerekwia there are links from a belt Pl. Voigt , , His work was cited by Reitinger , —, ig.

Links from this type of belt chain are quite numerous to the north of the Carpathians. But questions of terminology aside we may conclude that the period of popularity of belts of interest to us here coincides with phase LT C1.

Among the inds of bronze belt chains recovered from Nowa Cerekwia there is a fragment of a cross-shaped link decorated with enamel Pl.

Its preservation is too poor to determine conclusively the typological position of the original belt. At the same time possible chronological diferences between the types are not too great as both date to LT C1 Bujna , —, —, —, groups Gk-J and Gk-K.

Similar doubts apply to a bronze element decorated with enamel with a stylized animal-head ter- minal Pl. Worse still, it is not fully clear where exactly in the belt this element used to it.

Given its hook-like terminal in the form of a stylized animal-head it could be the fastener. If we accept this interpretation we have to ques- tion the method of attachment of this element to the rest of the belt.

Chain belt terminals, depending on whether they were main or side fasteners, were attached to the rest of the belt with a horizontal sleeve on the opposite side to the hook, or with vertical sleeves in case of the side terminals , in which were ixed ornamental links or bronze rings.

If we set aside the diference of design this artefact is stylistically a very close parallel to the ind from Nowa Cerekwia. A similar feature is seen on an ornamental attach- ment from a belt of Austrian-Bohemian type part of the inventory of inhumation grave no.

In its design and ornamentation this piece closely resembles the ind from Nowa Cerekwia. Instead, to the V-shaped terminal of its frame-like construction are attached two decorative pendants.

It is possible that the ind from the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia is an ornamental belt attachment rather than a belt terminal.

In case of inds from the two latter sites this is supported also by the analogical form of the stylised animal heads serving the role of hooks see earlier discussion.

In one of them the outer parts of the sleeves are lightly proiled and decorated with a motif of a diagonal cross Pl. In the other specimens the outer surface is plain.

Despite the lack of analogies, the size and traces of wear indicate that these are most likely to have been belt chain links. Similar links are known from locations other than Nowa Cerekwia.

In the collection of new inds from Nowa Cerekwia there are quite a large number of bronze rings of various diameters and cross-sections Pl.

In the main, the only exceptions are belts in which the links are connected with a chain cf. Continued friction could have caused the ring to fracture Pl.

Equally numerous as the rings in this group of inds are bronze pendants Pl. Also notable is the presence of similar single pendants Pl.

A sepa- rate group have oblong and lattened pendants Pl. Spindle-shaped pendants formed part of a complete belt of Austrian-Bohemian type, an element of the inventory of grave no.

Polenz proposes to date this assemblage to the early stage of LT C1 Polenz , although ibulae found in the Giengen cemetery Polenz , 66, Abb.

Bujna , 58, ig. A pendant for the specimen decorated with red enamel Pl. Also noteworthy is a pen- dant Pl. Benadik , 98; Zachar , , ig.

Poor conservation hinders their typological classiication. Found among them are specimens with a hook terminal in the form of a stylised animal head with bulging eyes Pl.

Hooks of similar form are a feature oten observed on fasteners or buckles of Celtic chain-belts. In this group of inds there are also simple forms of buckles or fasteners with a leaf-shaped plate and a hook-like terminal Pl.

Even in their frag- mented condition it can be ascertained that in one case lush with the plate there was a ring. Simple belt fasteners or buckles of this form are much rarer than specimens with stylised animal representations.

Louny in north-western Bohemia Filip , pl. In many cases some of the characteristic elements buckles or fasten- ers, links, pendants were all ixed to one and the same belt which could be one of a number of types.

It is worth noting that these dress accessories were oten quite elaborate, presumably assembled from elements selected from what individual cratsmen had in stock.

A conclusive identiication of separate belt types is possible only in some cases. In this situation the classiication and dating of these inds from settlement contexts, surviving fragmented as a rule has to be matched against a serious degree of error.

Personal ornaments he dominant ind in the group of personal ornaments made of bronze recovered from the settle- ment at Nowa Cerekwia are fragments of bracelets and anklets Pl.

Possibly the oldest among them is an uninished segment of a bracelet in the form of a plain, round-sectioned ingot with thick- ened and proiled terminals Pl.

Even so, in south Bavaria similar forms are one of the markers for Horizont 4 of lat cemeteries Gebhard , ig. Ingot bracelets, possibly anklets, decorated with closely spaced incisions are one of the markers of the same horizon also in Moravia and in Bohemia Gebhard , ig.

On the other hand, specimens decorated around their circumference with engraved ornament Pl. Rudnicki to be the neck ring from grave no.

Presumably, the personal ornament from Nowa Cerekwia also had four ornamented thickened bulges spaced on its perimeter at even intervals.

Even if we have only a small fragment of this specimen we may conclude that it resembled bracelets found in graves no. Originally it consisted of three segments attached with hinges.

Given its characteristic cross-section its prototypes may be found among glass bracelets with three ribs. Consequently we cannot say which of these types provided the direct inspiration for the ornament and this afects the question of its dating.

Of the class of ornaments of the greatest interest to us here the most widespread in the western region of Central Europe is type 6a. Amongst the inds inventory under analysis here is a fragment of a Hohlbuckelringe or anklet com- posed of hollow hemispheres Pl.

As they tended to evolve relatively steadily across time they are a fairly reliable chronologically diagnostic form. According to Gebhard , ig.

It is hard to conclude as to what fragment of what personal ornament or what dress accessory is the next item in the inventory of inds from Nowa Cerekwia — a cluster of three knobs decorated with punch-marks Pl.

However we cannot discount that in our case this may be a decorative element of a bracelet ornamented with pseudo-iligree. A ind without analogies whatsoever is a fragment of a hoop of bronze sheet with raised edges between which there are hemispherical knobs Pl.

In view of its small reconstructed diameter this object may be interpreted as a fragment of a inger-ring. A possible personal ornament could be the bronze igurine of a stylised human, arms crossed over the breast Pl.

It survives nearly complete missing only a fractured eyelet. One of the eye sockets retains a residue of black enamel which may have also decorated the round impressions above the arms.

Although this artefact lacks exact analogies similar, small anthropomorphic igurines are recorded pretty much everywhere on the Celtic territory cf.

One of them Pl. It may have been worn as a pendant around the neck or attached as a pendant to the terminal of an elite belt-chain. Related by its anthropomorphic form to the ind just described is a igurine in the form of a human foot Pl.

Highly stylised, it cannot be easily identiied to be the representation of a naked foot or of a shod one — although the irst interpretation seems more plausible.

Perhaps this is an uninished object. But if we take a closer look at the material from Nowa Cerekwia in a broader cultural context, from the perspective of the situation in the territory to the north of the Carpathians and Sudetesland, this state of afairs is validated, explaining many cultural pro- cesses which unfolded in this northern territory.

However, these issues are in need of a separate, more extensive discussion. Hinges with a tripartite rosette appear only rarely in the territory of the Jastorf culture.

A tripartite rosette, although a little diferent in shape, is seen gracing the top of a hinge discovered at Geesthacht, also in Holstein, but in its southern outlying area Kersten On this basis both inds may be dated broadly to LT C.

Most of them are types recorded earlier at this site cf. Karwowski , 60—61, 65— In grave inventories they are discovered in associa- tion with the oldest forms of bracelets made of blue-green glass Karwowski , 33, 69, ig.

Rudnicki higher ribbing, dated to LT C1b. Further specimens of cobalt glass representing the Group 8b variant 1 with a broad central rib and relatively long incisions Pl.

A form of artefact not recorded earlier, not only in the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia but not in any other site to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland, are cylindrical objects of blue coiled glass thread Pl.

Finished objects of this type were recovered during the archaeological investigation of the site at Nowa Cerekwia by Czerska Pl.

In this context what is of signiicance is that they document glassmaking in a settlement found to the north of the Carpathians and the Sudetesland which we can date using the rest of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia.

Most of them are representations of birds. Representations of animals other than birds are much less common. Among them is a igurine of a hare with an iron collar around its neck Pl.

In this latter case species identiication is made diicult by the degree of stylisation of the representation. Nevertheless, this is more likely to be a representation of a hedgehog as supported by the proportions of the head relative to the rest of the body and its short snout.

A common feature of the igurines is their lat or rather, recessed base or the presence of feet and a lack of means for attach- ment, holes or traces of soldering.

Most likely they served their function in the form in which they have now been recovered. No less than 53 of them are representations of birds, mostly water fowl 28 specimens.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 45 A larger series of analogous inds 22 specimens , again most of them birds, comes from a number of unlisted sites to the north and south of the Danube Jandrasits It is quite likely that one of them is the settlement at Roseldorf Bez.

Hollabrunn , the other — a similar site at Etzersdorf in Lower Austria. Jandrasits has argued — to my mind, quite incorrectly — that these igurines are coin weights.

Individual zoomorphic igurines have also been discovered in other sites in Lower Austria, for example at Michelstetten Lauermann , , ig.

An exception is the site at Polkovice okr. Given their high degree of similarity we may surmise that the igurines played the role of a standardized form of votive object.

Perhaps they were ofered to a deity whose principal attribute was birds. If this was so, then could it be that the sanctuary dedicated to a bird deity had a particular structure which so far has eluded detection.

It is noteworthy that the investigation of sanctuary structures at Roseldorf unearthed a rich assemblage of votive objects which however did not include igurines similar to those we have discussed here cf.

Most of them presumably may be interpreted as weights, which in theory at least would relate them to the monetary system of the Boii cf.

Paulsen ; Castelin To begin with very few objects which have suspension loops Pl. However, perhaps this is only a form of ornament and not any special mark indicat- ing a speciic weight.

On one of its faces is a central ring with a dot in the centre and four additional dots, one in every corner.

Despite obvious stylistic similarities, this time it is also too hard to claim as having any connection with a Boii weighing system from the pre- oppida times.

A separate, fairly uniform group comprises a few dozen bronze objects, most of them in the form of hemispheres or cones or, more rarely, discs Pl.

A few might be claimed as part of a set owing to their weight distribution. Intermediate specimens have a weight close to that of the conical object with a diameter of Rudnicki lighter category of the discussed inds is represented by a specimen in the form of a disc, with a diameter of 7.

Of similar weight 0. One of the lightest specimens has the form of a section of a sphere with a diameter of 5. On the other hand a whole series has been recorded at some unnamed sites on the Danube Jandrasits , 79—80, catalogue no.

Not only is their form highly similar to that of the inds from Nowa Cerekwia, as for instance a specimen with a proiled base Jandrasits , 80, ig.

Jandrasits interpreted these inds as coin weights, matching them somewhat dubiously to the chronologically and geographically mixed denominations of Boii coinage.

What remains a problem is how to explain the weight of other objects in the discussed group. It seems very likely that some of them — especially those in the form of a disc — possibly uninished or mis-struck — lans of silver or gold plated coins subaerati.

We cannot rule out that the rest of the artefacts which have a weight that does not correspond to that of the Boii coins of minting Period A — are also weights.

Perhaps the system of weights used by the Celts was much more complex than might have seem at irst to be the case, and the estimated weights may correspond to units that we still do not understand.

Before closing this section we need to mention inds which supply evidence of local bronze work- ing — casting Pl. Numismatic inds From the many seasons of archaeological excavations on the site of Nowa Cerekwia made before we had an unimpressive series of just three coins.

All the later inds were from sec- ondary deposits. Its ill also contained a fragment of a sapropelite bracelet and sherds,9 a few fragments of daub and some animal bones.

Unfortunately, nothing more is known about these inds owing to the inadequate nature of their publication. At each end of the axis of this feature was a posthole.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 47 three iron objects; a needle, a hook, and an ingot, as well as sherds,10 33 fragments of daub and 16 animal bones.

Coins are the largest group in the inventory of inds from the ieldwork carried out in — and number specimens. If we include four coins discovered before and approximately a further 30 from detectorist inds we arrive at a total of around coins,12 of which at least 62 are gold — both complete and clipped.

According to unoicial igures in the period — treasure hunters may have recovered as many as coins. In general, the group may be divided into three groups all from the same chronological period: At Nowa Cerekwia gold specimens are represented entirely by coins of the main series.

Notable also is a very small rep- resentation of subaerate coins. In the recorded part of the coin ind series from Nowa Cerekwia there are only three such coins: A unique specimen is a clipped fragment of a stater with a clear representation of Athena holding a shield Pl.

On the obverse of all coins of this type discovered at Nowa Cerekwia there is a distinct head of Pallas Athena in wearing a Corinthian helmet and with the head turned to the right, and on the reverse — without a shadow of doubt — Athena Alkidemos advancing let and holding her shield upraised to the let.

In case of other specimens of Plumlov type the situation presumably is the same, but owing to the deterioration of the sharpness on the die this cannot be ascertained conclusively.

Notable at the same time is the low frequency not only from Nowa Cerekwia in the material record, of stylistically good gold denomina- tions of Athena Alkidemos type, such as the unique stater Pl.

Rudnicki this practice is that the weight standard was being reduced because throughout this period the metal standard apparently did not change.

A vast majority of the numismatic inds from Nowa Cerekwia are minor silver coins, conventionally described as obols.

A considerable number of them are poorly preserved. Given the good condition of two specimens discovered in — we may assume that the surface of these more recent coin inds was damaged by chemical action including lime used as crop fertiliser.

It is hard to assess the impact of corrosion on the reduction of the weight of individual coins but we need to take this factor into account when making statistical analyses.

Almost without exception the obols are the main types known for the territory covered by the coinage system of the Boii.

As a rule they are fairly poorly preserved, their weight being in the range of approximately 0. However, as will be noted these terms no longer appear to be adequate.

Most of them survive in poor condition and in a few cases it is uncertain whether above the horse there was originally a star or some other symbol.

Interestingly enough, these smallest Boii coin fractions were further subdivided into smaller parts Pl. Also, among obols from Roseldorf there is an apparent quantitative domination of type Roseldorf II.

Perhaps, these diferences are the result of diferences in the chronology? One of them is a clipped fragment of an Eastern Celtic tetradrachm Preda , 29—47, pl.

With a weight of 0. For the time being close analogies are known only from Lower Austria which area also has a record of other variants of obols with a very similar reverse Jandrasits , , nos.

Coins are not the only numismatic object made of gold and silver in the inds from Nowa Cerekwia. One of these objects resembles in its shape a hemispherical, unin- ished coin lan Pl.

Apart from these inds, another conirmation of the local production of gold coins at Nowa Cerekwia is the frag- ment of a gold rod with constrictions at regular intervals Pl.

With a length of Two of them weigh around 4 g and may be interpreted as melted down drachms. Even more notable however are two other silver lumps of regular shape and very similar in weight, 1.

Given the circum- stances presented here of naming the entire group of these coins as Roseldorf I and II Dembski , 6, 8, no. Group 3 in the numismatic inventory from Nowa Cerekwia closes with imported coins, non-Celtic — at least nine Greek bronzes.

Rudnicki of distant travels or votive oferings, eventually as a handy stock of valuable metal. Celtic mercenaries could get them probably as sitonion also siteresion or sitarchia which is a name referred to rations in kind or the equivalent amount in money — i.

In the history of coinages of Athens is reported by literary sources pseudo-Aristotle, Economics, a; Polyaenos, Stratagems, 3.

When assessing its signiicance and character we need to be aware that we have at our disposal only a fragment of the original body of data relating to this centre.

A diametrically diferent view though also incorrect, was presented by Pescheck In his reconstruction the basalt outcrop used to be the site of an oppidum — or a Celtic proto-urban settlement — which extended sup- posedly over an area of about ha.

Putting aside the verac- ity of the information about the existence of traces of earthworks near to the settlement it must be said that the settlement at Nowa Cerekwia, if only because of its chronology, cannot have been an oppidum.

Presumably it was an open settlement, at least 6 ha in area. We have to keep in mind that most of inds are items of non-ferrous metals. It cannot be regarded as relecting the reality of the situation because men certainly inhabited the settlement as well.

Perhaps they are the earliest coins issued at that site but equally well they could have been brought in from outside during its early phase.

One commodity — amber — was brought in from the north Pl. A major role was played by export to the territory inhabited by closely related Celtic groups to the east the western part of Lesser Poland and to the north-west Lower Silesia.

Celtic gold coins also entered the territory what was then under Germanic settlement, now central Poland Pl. It is here that warriors from the north came, ready to serve in the eastern Mediterranean.

Some of the mercenaries would have been Germanic, for there is no other way to explain the presence of Greek coins Mielczarek , map 1 in Germanic Jastorf and Przeworsk Cultures contexts in central Poland — in Kuyavia and western Mazovia Pl.

Bronze Greek coins were deinitely not an object of long-distance exchange. Germanic mercenaries — as well as Celtic — could get them probably as sitonion.

We can link this process, one that is recorded in various forms, in other areas of Central Europe, to a concrete historical occurrence — the migration of the Cimbri and the Teutones, whose beginning is usually dated to around BC though one should note that this date is only an approximation as the irst point in this migration was the Battle of Noreia, where in BC for the irst time the Germans defeated the forces of Rome Appianos, Celtica Classical authors record that before pushing into Noricum the Cimbri and Teutones had entered the territory of the Boii but were forced out from this area to the lands of the Scordisci and only from there did they march westward Poseidonios in Strabo VII 2, Very likely their route from Jutland ran through the territory of the Boii in Upper Silesia and then on by way of the Moravian Gate and down the valley of the Morava, to the lands on the Danube.

It is quite likely that the migra- tion of the Cimbri and the Teutones also triggered profound settlement change as has been observed in Moravia.

During various stages of their movement east the Cimbri would have been accompanied by sub-groups of various Celtic tribes.

Amongst them were also the Boii Neuman et al. In any case, the investigations made at Nowa Cerekwia have identiied no evidence of destruction to indicate that the end of the settlement was accompanied by major evidence of destruction.

On the contrary, the presence of coil-built pottery with Jastorf and Przeworsk features c. Grygiel , but not in the materials from Schleswig-Holstein or Jutland.

Presumably the Cimbri chose to travel through Upper Silesia because it was occupied by friendly tribes of Germanic extraction and their Celtic allies.

In any case it is likely that they set of south together with them. For example, the archaeological record from Roseldorf includes coins from the oppida period, i.

Also, it seems that the centre at Nowa Cerekwia was the probably earliest of the three to be established. Nowa Cerekwia, positioned at the outlet of the Moravian Gate, had a strategic signiicance for the control over communication routes connecting Moravia with the lands lanking the Odra and the Vistula rivers and, in a larger perspective command- ing the southern regions of Europe with the Baltic Sea basin.

In view of the similarity of the archaeological record, particularly, with regard to the numismatic inds from the three centres, we can hazard a guess that they were part of the same socio- political system.

Possibly this structure may be identiied as being related to the Boii and perceived as a federation of tribes. Centres of this type — resi- dences of the Celtic elite — were the foci of political, social and religious life, as well as of production and commerce.

Most likely, they also served as mustering points from which warriors ready to hire out their services set of on journeys to the Mediterranean.

It is strik- ing that the majority of hoard inds18 of gold Boii coins of approximately similar chronology19 have been discovered spread the length of this route Pl.

Bednarek Bednarek, M. Benadik Benadik, B. Bieger Bieger, A. Bokiniec Bokiniec, E. Bujna Bujna, J. Castelin Castelin, K. Czerska Czerska, B.

Dembski Dembski, G. Echt Echt, R. Filip Filip, J. Gebhard Gebhard, R. Gedl Gedl, M. Giganon Giganon, D. Grygiel Grygiel, M.

Haffner Hafner, A. Haevernick Haevernick, h. Hingst Hingst, H. Hodson Hodson, F. Holzer Holzer, V. Jahn Jahn, M.

Jandrasits Jandrasits, H. Karwowski Karwowski, M. Kersten Kersten, K. Zu den Ausgrabungen in den Jahren bis , Germania, 40, — Lauermann Lauermann, E.

Schritenreihe der Forschung im Verbund, Band , Wien, — Liampi Liampi, K. Lippert Lippert, A. Marciniak Marciniak, J. Meduna Meduna, J. Mielczarek Mielczarek, M.

Rudnicki Neuman et al. Newrzella Newrzella, O. Paulsen Paulsen, R. Pescheck Pescheck, Ch. Petersen Petersen, E. Pieta Pieta, K.

Polenz Polenz, H. Polenska Poleska, P. Preda Preda, C. Reitinger Reitinger, J. Richthofen Richthofen, von B. Le Rider Le Rider, G.

Rudnicki Rudnicki, M. Rutter Rutter, N. Segesta — Sardinia, Copenhagen. Stiebler Stiebler, M. Stoyas Stoyas, Y. Voigt Voigt, h.

Warneke Warneke, T. Ziegaus Ziegaus, B. List of igures Fig. View of the trench from the north; 2. Georg Raschke, ; 2. Museum of Opole Silesia, inv.

Aerial photo of the Site 4 photos: View from north-east; in the distance are visible the Jeseniky mountain range in eastern Sudetesland; 2.

Selected bronze inds from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Selected glass artefacts from the surface survey carried out in recent years drawing: Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered during by B.

Czerska in photo: Silver obol, Roseldorf II type; 3— Rudnicki gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Selected gold plated subaerate coins, Athena Alkidemos type; A clipped fragment of a gold stater, Athena Alkidemos type; 19— Fragment of an imitation silver tetradrachm, Philip II irst series type; Clipped fragments of gold bars; 5—6.

Bronze coin of Philip II of Macedon; 9. Bronze coin of Kroton in Bruttium; Bronze coin of Hiero II ruler of Syracuse; Bronze coin of Pentonkion, Mamertines of Messana; Raw amber discovered in ; Finds of early Boii coins minting Period A acc.

Greek coin inds in the Central European Barbaricum star: Nowa Cerekwia, ater Mielczarek ; 2. Hoards with only gold Boii coins from minting Period A 1.

Rudnicki 1 2 3 4 Plate 2. A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 63 1 2 3 4 6 8 9 11 10 5 7 12 13 14 20 21 22 15 16 17 18 19 27 24 25 26 23 28 30 33 34 29 32 31 Plate 5.

A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 65 5 3 4 1 6 2 10 11 12 17 9 16 8 13 14 15 7 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 Plate 7.

Crucible made of clay containing graphite with a residue on its walls of corroded green-coloured metal discovered by B. A Celtic Centre for Crat and Commerce of Interregional Importance North of the Carpathians 67 1 9 5 7 2 3 4 10 8 6 11 14 15 12 13 16 18 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 30 29 28 0 1 cm Plate 9.

Selected gold coins, Nike and Athena Alkidemos type; 16— Rudnicki 1 2 Plate Eastern Austria, cratsmen, graves, pottery kilns, pottery ornamentation When approaching questions of prehistoric cratsmanship it is essential to identify information based on sources and to examine critically their past interpretation.

In this respect the role of the grave goods may be con- sidered as: At the same time, these areas ofer a link to the Carpathian Basin see also Ramsl ; a.

In this region several burials have been found with an inventory indicating that the individual in the grave was associated with cratsmanship.

In the Traisen Valley, in the small pit of Pottenbrunn grave no. Resin can be used as an adhesive for diferent materi- als, but also as a cushion for engraving work or generally as a working-surface.

Next to this grave, grave no. Ramsl the form of the bufer-terminals of torcs found particularly in north-eastern France — an expression of the high skills of Celtic ine metalwork makers Megaw et al.

Map of archaeological sites in Eastern Austria and the surrounding area mentioned in the text. But the grave good require us to reconsider his profession.

All these artefacts could have been used in pharmaceutical or medicinal practice, but also they could be used for working leather knives , textiles the shears , bone or antler saw or metal the whetstone.

A pair of shears was found separately from the large tools Pl. One is an antler tine with a groove at one end. Another is shaped like a quiver and is also made of antler.

Another reading is that it is a tool for embossing metal. In cremation grave no. As in similar burials, a small group of objects was placed between the right hip and the right hand Pl.

In this grave two fragments of iron bracelets, one small bronze ring and several small bronze fragments with grooves were placed together. So here, with some caution it can be postulated that this inventory demonstrates the access of the individual or of the familia to a range of resources.

Besides the interpretation of grave inventories, settle- ment features also can indicate the presence of cratsmen and cratsmanship.

Next to the production centres, the distribution areas of pottery decoration are an indication of pos- sible workshops. It is the case of pots from Mannersdorf graves no.

Analogous signs — only stamped into the clay, not engraved Pl. Regarding the genuine ornamentation techniques of the region it can be noticed, that the Traisen Valley and neighbouring areas are rich in artefacts which are decorated with ornaments constructed with a compass Ramsl , Abb.

Around the omphalos on the inside of the bowl two concentric circles can be seen. Analogies can be mentioned from the settlement of Inzersdorf-Walpersdorf Ramsl , Abb.

In both cases the compass point is still visible Pl. An example of a combination of circle ornamentation and stamps can be seen on the pot from Pottenbrunn grave no.

Here a sophisticated circle construction Pl. As a close analogy one may cite the Linsenlasche from Gars am Kamp Pl. It is probable that a special type of compass having a simple shape — a Stangenzirkel — was used, which consists of a small piece of wooden board and two metal points.

In this case it is highly improb- able that such an artefact could have survived. As mentioned earlier, a similar pattern can be also found on bone and antler artefacts.

An example from the region is the turned handle found in Inzersdorf-Walpersdorf Ramsl , Abb. Identic ornament can be seen on the bronze belt-hook from Ossarn Engelhardt , Abb.

Together with simple circles, yin-yang motives, triskels, S-shaped volutes and circular arcs drawn inside a circle the ornamentation made with the help of a compass can be also found on several decorative scabbards Pl.

In , in Sommerein am Leithagebirge, a pair of shoe lasts Pl. Due to their shape, it is clear that these were used for producing so-called Schnabelschuhe or pointed shoes.

Based on the pottery found nearby, they can be dated as far back as the Early Iron Age. Plenty of depictions as well as representations of the Schnabelschuhe are known, like the shoe-shaped ibula from Leopoldau in Vienna Neugebauer , Abb.

It can be seen on the scabbard found in grave no. Other evidence for shoes in the area are the bronze buttons like the ones from Oberndorf Ramsl forthcoming , Gemeinlebarn Neugebauer , or Herzogenburg— Kalkofen Neugebauer b, Taf.

Related cratsmanship can also be seen in nearby located settlement centres. In this case, based on the similarity of some production details, the Traisen Valley and the area of Bratislava show close connections.

From the s to the end of the century the newborn capital in a special relation to Vienna gained its own faces. Some of these faces were represented of stricty shaped by literary works of art.

Therefore, myi nterest is not only historical of cultural, it moves rather toward the poetical formations of the topic. Das Bild der Kroaten in der deutschprachigen Literatur: In alkl diesen Texten findet sich nirgendwo mehr die deutlich negative Charakterisierung der Kroaten, wie wir sie aus aSchillers Wallenstein kennen.

Deutlich wird in diesem Zusammenghang auch, dass von dem kulturellen Stereotyp des Kroaten in der modernen deutschsprachigen Literatur ernsthaft nicht geredet werden kann.

Viel interessanter ist die gleichzeitige Ungarophilie in Dubrovnik und Dalmatien M. Stereotype kultureller "Gestaltungstechniken" in der Avantgarde: Das Eigene und das Fremde in der IMagologie ; 3.

Vorurteile als Bedingungen des Verstehens: Angesichts dieses Dilemmas hat im Da se der Hermeneutik im wesentlichen um Sinnvernittlung, d.

Statt den utopischen Versuch zu unternehmen, alle Vorurteile los zu werden, kommt es aus hermeneutischer Sicht vielmehr darauf an, sie bewusst zu machen und nicht zuletzt bereit zu sein, die sich als falsch erweisenden Borurteile aufzugeben.

Deutschlandbilder von der Romantik bis zur gegenwart: Paradoxerweise regte sich in Deutschland selbst Widerstand gegen dieses Klischee, und zwar im Namen des industriellen Fortschritts.

Bereits an der Schwelle des Dieses von technischer Perfektion beherrschte Bild gilt zum Teil auch noch heute. Der Artikel betrachtet die kulturellen Stereotype im Rahmen der Diskurstheorie: Als Paradebeispiel wird die Dissemination der modernen kroatischen Nation untersucht.

Jahrhundert schuf die kroatische Kultur zwei Ideologien, zwei Imagologien und zwei Stereotypen: Kroatozentrismus in der Politik A.

Hill, Walter -- The warriors.

Bader 1 2 3 4 Tafel 2. A groove runs along the edges of the plaque. Kroatozentrismus in der Politik A. Klemenc Klemenc, J. Vaday Vaday, A. Two exquisite inds — bracelets from Osijek P, Weltfussball barcelona. One of them Pl. Aerial photo of the Site 4 spanische weihnachtslotterie lose kaufen We have to keep in mind that most of inds are items of non-ferrous metals. All these artefacts could have been used in pharmaceutical or medicinal practice, but also they could be used for phil taylor preisgeld leather knivestextiles the shearsbone or antler saw or metal the whetstone. Check out our Holiday Email Casino bonus sans depot 2019 Playbook and explore surefire strategies for boosting end-of-year business! When assessing its signiicance and character we need to be aware that we have at our disposal only a fragment of the original body of online casino gewinn ohne einzahlung relating to this centre. Very likely their route from Jutland ran through the territory of the Boii in Upper Silesia and then on by way of the Moravian Gate and down the valley of the Morava, to the lands on the Danube. A groove runs along the edges of the plaque, while the foot widens in the form of an anchor above the spring that probably consisted of six externally connected coils. Evidence of roasting and smelting is not known casino homburg saar this area, but this is not surprising, because in this period it was common to use second- ary copper ores. A few other things should be kept in mind when looking at the data: It is quite likely that one of them is the settlement at Roseldorf Bez. Spinland casino 50 freispiele ohne einzahlung of the mercenaries would have been Germanic, for there is no other way to explain the presence of Greek coins Mielczarekmap 1 in Germanic Jastorf and Przeworsk Cultures contexts in central Poland — in Kuyavia and western Mazovia Pl. It was most romme spielen gametwist placed on the chest of the dead. Bronze coin of Hiero II ruler of Syracuse; Stiebler — witness to further discoveries brisbane atp at Book of ra online echtgeld bonus Cerekwia — before WWII a total of 30 pit-houses with post-holes indicated by their black illing had been excavated — not counting those destroyed by the quarry Newrzella Starting with the well-known piece found in grave no. We will not online casino gewinn ohne einzahlung here the copper smelting workshops of the Eastern Alps; our present study focuses on the sites situated on the western periphery of the Carpathian Basin. Hochstetter Hochstetter, A. According to Gebhardig. Time-strapped consumers will be in efficiency mode finding thoughtful gifts at the best prices. Ater the end of WWII ield-work on the settlement, now recorded as site no. It may be safe to state that only a small fraction of objects discovered recently escaped detection during exploration of structures during the seasons when Czerska was directing the excavations.

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